The History of Sochi

People started to explore the territory of present day Sochi 400-350 years ago in the early Paleolithic Period. Sochi was an important city in antique and medieval history. Manifold archeological sites have been found and explored: caves, ancient settlements, stone monuments known as dolmens, ruins of fortresses and churches, burial grounds, kurgan burials and so on. 

Archeological excavations on the territory of Sochi proved the city to be unique taking into consideration the number of archeological and historical heritage sites. Such archeological memorial sites give retrospective view of people’ lives many centuries ago. The remnants show how they lived, worked, the clothes they wore. We discover their houses, art objects, cult places and so on. 

More than 200 archeological sites are registered as unique archeological heritage sites. Byzantine – style fortress on Goldlik River, Lazarevskiy District, and medieval churches in the settlement Lo-o are among them. “The period of early Middle Ages in present day Sochi is represented by numerous hill forts, fortresses and churches.” - says an archeologist U. N. Voronov. In the early antique period (4-1 century BC) on the north-eastern seacoast of the Black Sea there lived tribes of Aehi, Zygii and Geonihi, and in the first centuries AD the area of Sochi was populated by Sanigi who belonged to Genionikh tribes conglomerate before that. In middle Ages, there lived tribes of Abkhaz-Adyghe language groups and in the first half of the 19th century - Adyghe (Black Sea Shapsugi), Ubykh and Abazun (Sadzy). From the second half of the XVIth century the Caucasian territory became the arena of Russian confrontation with Ottoman Empire (Turkey) and Persia, which ended in signing the Treaty of Adrianople. According to the peace treaty the Black Sea territory from river Kuban to the St. Nickolas fortress (to the south of city Poty, Georgia) came to Russia. During the Caucasian War in the 30s, the 19th century, the first Russian Black Sea outpost was set up to protect people living along the coastline. On the territory of Sochi, Russian soldiers built fortresses: the Holy Ghost fortress (Adler), fortress Aleksandria (Sochi), Lazarev fortress (Lazarevskoe), Golovinskoe (Golovinka) and others. Some fortresses ruins preserved to the present days and are now considered historical heritage. 

After the Caucasian War (1864) native people / Adyghe (Shapsugi, Ubykh, Abazun (Sazdy) were forced to abandon their motherland. 

After the decree, promoting population transfer of people from all over the Russian Empire to the Sochi area the territory of the Black Sea Coast was quickly resettled. There lived Russians, Ukrainians, Belarusians, Armenians, Georgians, Greeks, Estonians, Moldavians and other nationalities, representing a colourful combination of the present day Sochi. All the forthcoming events determined the future resort city - Sochi appearance and development. 

The Caucasian War ended (in 1864) and people started to explore and study remedial effects of the Black Sea coast. At this very moment, the process of division of lands was in its full swing. The government proved to be unable to solve the problem of industrial exploration of the territory and had to attract private capital to cope with it. Thus, Russian bourgeoisie circles felt the benefits of the territory, new branches to invest and raise the profits. 

When in 1868 newspapers printed numerous articles about the land division a group of intellectuals led by Peter and Alexander Vereshchagins (brothers) decided to make an association of specialists not only in agriculture but in factory industries as well. There were 50 specialists in the association. They were interested in the Black Sea coast and it was Sochi (Post Dakhovky), that they chose as a central settlement for their purpose. “It so happens,” writes F. P. Dobrokhotov - the author of the guidebook «the Caucasian Black Sea coast», 1916, - comrades spread out over the coast, but their colonization plans were not over.” 

In 1872, a villa called “Vera” was built on the territory of N.N Mamontov’s estate. The villa, considered the first datcha (summer house) was built on the territory of Big Sochi. Then Sochi country house building experiences some decline... A special committee, launched in 1898, that studied the Black Sea coast territory from towns Novorossisk to Sukhumi, played an important role in development of Sochi – as a Resort. The committee consisted of professors A.I.Voejkov, F. I.

Pasternatskiy and a mine engineer A. V. Sergeev. They read their report to the first all-Russian convention on climatology, hydrology and balneology, which took place in St. Petersburg, 1898. The report said that natural resources, the Black Sea territory is rich for, made it possible to create water health resorts. However, it required sound investments, governmental support and involvement of specialists. The Tzar government stepped away from the problem but it was solved with the assistance of prominent individuals and their investments. 

At the end of XIX - beginning of the XX centuries rich lands of the Black Sea coast attracted attention of big industrials and entrepreneurs. A decree dating from 23 of May 1896, made the Black Sea District that was part of the Kuban territory, a separate and independent Black Sea Gubernia (a county). That was the smallest Gubernia in Russia (6455 square miles). Simultaneously the Land being under Sochi custodianship became a District. The Sochi District boundaries spread from the Dederukaj River (present-day Lazarevskiy District) to Sukhumi (Gagra city). In 1901, Sukhumi District was added to Sochi District. Since then Sochi District boundaries have spread from the sea to the main Caucasian mountain ridge - from Shakhe River on the north to Bzych River on the south, including Gagra city. According to the same Decree (23 of May, 1896) , the Dakhovsky Posad (administrative division of settlements in Russian Empire) was named Sochi Posad in the name of Ubykh settlement - “soatshe” that populated the territory until 1864. On 1 May, 1898, Sochi Posad was included into the list of settlements with a simplified public administration - classified as an urban village. The administration consisted of the village headman, his assistant and 12 elected commissioners. 

Only after the inclusion of the Vereshchagins, the Khludlovkys and the Katkovo-Leontevs dachas (summer houses) and private estates of the Kostarevs, the Tolokonnikovs, Khudekovs and others into the Posad territory, Sochi got the status of a city ( 31st of July, 1917). Within Sochi District, there were big private estates of count S. D. Sheremetev, S. I. Kovalevskaya, Prince Michael, Tzar country estate “Dagomys” and many others. The building of a highway Novorossisk-Sukhumi and wide media coverage of the committee reports in 1898 contributed to lager investment and further construction of dachas and resort places in Sochi District. The price of land rose and the owners were selling parts of their estates for the construction of dachas, guesthouses and hotels. 

At the end of XIX - the beginning of XX centuries the architecture of Sochi had its own unique features, characteristic to sea resort towns and greatly deferent from that of other Russian provinces. The main Sochi construction plan was to create a city like a garden. The architectural system had a feature of a pavilion construction, characteristic to parks, aiming to harmonize the city architecture with the landscape. Sochi was particularly proud of its beautiful parks. 

S. N. Khudekov - the author of a notable book “The History of Dance”, the editor and publisher of “St. Petersburg newspaper”- founded a special park – Aboretum Park - in 1892, where he collected and planted over 1500 species of plants from all over the world. It is the largest subtropical park in Russia. (Historical and cultural heritage of federal significance). 

“Riviera public garden is a “specialty” of Sochi. It was founded in 1898 and belonged to V. A. Khludov - an honorable, notable citizen of Moscow, an heir of the oldest merchant dynasty. The garden has more than 240 species of trees and bushes, 50 of which are particularly valuable and unique. In 1901-1903 professor A. N. Krasnov founded a park of subtropical flora in Khosta. In 1910-1911, following a project of a famous landscape architect A. Regel, there was founded a park in “Sluchaynoe” estate (Sovkhoz “Uzhnye Cultury” public garden) in Adler. 

Climate and environmental conditions in the village Uchdere near Sochi made it a perfect place to open a tuberculosis detection centre. In 1900 a minister of Agriculture and State Property A. S. Yermolov presented a piece of land in the village Uchdere (55 square hectares) to Empress Maria institute for pupils with poor health. Romanov recreation boarding school, donated by the institute, was opened and blessed in 1914. Many Moscow officials and prominent people had their dachas and estates in the village Uchdere and around it: Dacha of Evgenii Vasilyevich Pavlov - a professor, a doctor of medicine, a surgeon and a Private Councilor; Estate of Princes Konstantin Konstantinovich and Dmitry Konstantinovich; Dacha of Nikolay Savvich Abaza - a doctor of medicine, a member of State Council, head of printing and publishing ministry; Dacha of Grigory Alexandrovich Krestovnikov - the chairman of Moscow Exchange Committee, the Chairman of Moscow Merchant Bank; Dacha of Feodor Nikiforovich Plevako - a famous lawyer and court speaker; Estate of Dmitiy Sergeevich Sheremetev - a count, aide-de-camp in the Russian Empire; Dachas of entrepreneurs: Aristov, Shipov and others. 

All the estates were located not far from the sea and had beautiful gardens stretching 3-5 hectares long with exotic plants. Twenty estates and their constructions of the late XIX - the beginning of XX centuries preserved to the present days and registered as objects of historic and cultural heritage of Russia. 
The government did not provide any real assistance to the development of Sochi District. Sochi headman A. Kartashov noted in his report to the convention of activists of Caucasian Black Sea coast, which took place in St. Petersburg in 1913: “the significance of Sochi for Russia as a health resort is widely covered by media and its popularity in this respect is so big that there is hardly a town or a village throughout the whole territory of European or Asian parts of Russia, where people have never heard of Sochi...” However, due to the poor organization, “lots of people prefer going abroad and spend there millions of rubles thus enriching the Resorts there... and our Resorts, being richer for natural and environmental resources, are in great decline and misery...” However, at that time all the concerns and suggestions of Sochi municipals were left unattended by the government. After the October Revolution (1917) and the Civil War (1918-1920) Sochi experiences construction boost reaching its high point in the 30s. The first general plan of Sochi reconstruction approved in 1934. Greatest architects I. V. Zholtovskiy, V. A. Schuko, A. V. Shchusev and new but promising architects I. S. Kuznetsov, K. P. Chernopyatov, V. V. Efimovich, brothers A.A. and K.A. Vesnins and others were involved in the process. 
Sochi reconstruction was held frantically, projects were drawn alongside the construction itself. A road to the Akhun Mountain peak and an Observation tower (the design of the architect S.I. Vorobyov) 30 meters high were built in 1935. Nowadays the tower serves a monument of soviet architecture and city construction. 
Such difficult architectural constructions as the Riviera Bridge, Vereshchagin and Matsesta viaducts (civil architecture and engineering heritage) were built in the shortest terms. In 5 years (1934 - 1939) there were built 19 new spa resorts – Primorye Spa Resort, Pravda Spa Resort, Zolotoy Kolos Spa Resort , spa resorts named after S. M. Kirov, S Ordzhonikidze, Frunze, Fabrizius, and Voroshilov. Famous Sochi Matsesta Spa Resort faces serious reconstruction, new buildings are being erected, including the building “number 4” - the largest and the most comfortable according to A.P. Golubev project (monument of soviet architecture). Sochi becomes Soviet Health Resort. 

The city architecture was in perfect harmony with the environmental demands and had specific features of the time. The edifices and constructions of that period still attract attention of Sochi citizens and guests. 

Sochi Art Museum (former office of the USSR Commissioner responsible for the Spa Resort Sochi - Matsesta), Winter Theatre, Spa Resort named after S. Ordzhonikidze are considered to be architectural and city construction monuments of federal significance. Fourteen edifices, erected during the first wave of Sochi reconstruction and registered as soviet architectural and city construction monuments are under the protection of Russian government. During the Second World War period, Sochi resorts became hospitals housing over 300 000 soldiers and officers. After the war, the process of reconstruction became even greater. 
The construction of Sochi Sea Port, the Railway Station and Passenger Sea Terminals (monuments of civil architecture), the Airport, Adler Air Terminal, the Krasnaya Polyana hydroelectric power station was finally brought to an end. Housing parts of spa resorts: Belarus’ Spa, ‘Sochi’ Integrated Spa Resort, Salyut Spa Resort, Semasko Spa Resort, and Central Clinical Resort named after F.E. Dzerzhinskiy are completed in this period. New resorts also appeared - Metallurg Spa resort, Zarya Spa Resort, Rus’ Integrated Spa Resort Federal State Institution, Progress Clinical Resort, and Chayka Spa Resort; opened Sputnik Sports and Recreation Facility, a telecentre, movies, broad-walks got new architectural design. 

In 1961, the RSFSR Supreme Soviet added Adler and Lazаrevskiy District to Sochi Resorts. Sochi District now spread from village Magri (at the border with Tuapse District) to the mouth of the Psou River (at the border with Abkhazia).

A new general scheme of Sochi - Resort reconstruction, planned for 25-30 years, was adopted in 1967. The scheme meant to build recreational complexes covering 145 kilometers of coast territory and identify agricultural zones. Intensive housing, industrial and hotels construction was in its full swing in those years. In 1960s hotels- Leningrad, Kuban, Sochi’ Central Military Clinical Resort, Sochi-Magnolia Hotel, Caucasus Spa Resort, Chayka Spa Resort and some years later – Kamelia Spa Resort, Zhemchuzhina Hotel, Moskva Hotel, Dagomys Wellness Facility Federal State Unitary Enterprise of the President Administration were completed. The construction of modern spa resorts such as Zelenaya Roshcha Spa Resort, Belye Nochi Spa Resort, Neva International Spa resort and others got a significant boost.

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Sochi has several times held international events at the highest level possible. FIFA2017 Confederation Cup and 2018 FIFA World Cup Russia™ will become unprecedented world projects and big achievements of the city. Due to the World football tournaments well equipped football fields will be built in addition to the modern high tech football stadium Fisht. FIFA 2017 Confederation Cup matches made Sochi Resort very attractive for tourists thus having enhanced the tourist flow in long term perspective. Within the framework of FIFA 2017 Confederation Cup Sochi stadium Fisht held 4 matches: 3 qualifying matches on the 19th, 21st and the 25th of June, 2017, and the tournament semifinal on the 29th of June. The Confederation Cup viewers are a special category of viewers. Football fans of Australian, German, New Zealand, Mexican and Cameron teams, who have taken long hours flights only to see the national team play with their own eyes, could not but cause admiration. More than 115 thousand people came to Sochi matches. The football atmosphere spread through the city. Sochi received highest praise from the best football teams. Joachim Low, German National coach, called Sochi amazing. “All football players and football fans who had come from Germany liked the city very much. The beauty of Sochi, its infrastructure pleased them a lot. They also liked hospitality of people in Sochi. Whatever the tournament results will be, Sochi impresses us much” said Reinhard Grindel, German football Union President . Within the framework of 2018 FIFA World Cup Russia™, Sochi will hold 6 matches: 4 qualifying matches on the 15th, 18th, 23d and 26th of June, 1/8 final on the 30th of June and 1/4 final on the 7th of July, 2018. In the first half of a day there will be held educational sports programs on the field; and during the day the fans will enjoy the music entertainment program, apart from football live transmissions. Russian and foreign pop Stars, and some regional music groups as well, will take part in the entertainment process. Different programs for the young viewers, visits of famous football players, express interviews with sportsmen, contests among the viewers and regional team plays are planned to take place on the “Fans Festival” field. Sochi invites you to take part in the 2018 World football event and visit 2018 FIFA World Cup Russia™ matches on Sochi stadium Fisht. Sochi fans and the Resort guests have now the opportunity to choose the matches and buy tickets to 2018 World football Cup. The schedules are already published - so we know what teams will play at what days. On the 1st of December the toss up results determined the matches that will be held in Sochi. The schedule for the 2018 World football Cup teams is as follows: In the Group Stage: 15th of June. Portugal versus Spain 18th of June. Belgium versus Panama 26th of June. Austria versus Peru 23d of June. Germany versus Swiss Final matches in Sochi: 30th of June. 1/8 final 7th of July. 1/4 final As you can see, Sochi will witness the results of four group stage matches and two semifinal. The matches will be held on the stadium Fisht, Adler district.

Matsesta resort is the largest health and spa resort complex in Russia, founded in 1902 on hydrosulfuric waters of Matsesta spring. Sochi resort specialists have worked out unique, recognized all over the world, methods to treat post operative and post injury trauma, gynaecological problems, osteo-articular diseases with the help of Matsesta water baths. There exists a fascinating legend about the way Matsesta springs appeared. The birth of Matsesta. At night when a daughter was born in the family of a highlander Kerenduk, the mountain river reflected the Moon like a flame. So Kerenduk following the tradition of that times called his daughter Matsesta - which means flame water. Parents loved their daughter with all their hearts and she was very attentive and caring to them. The healing water. Once when her parents got very ill a holly man told Matsesta that there was a magic underground source which healing waters could cure her parents. The girl swore to get the water at any price. She got into the cave and started an unequal fight with an evil underground spirit that preserved the water from people. The victory price. The brave girl conquered the evil spirit and digged the source way to people. But she gave her life to do that. Since that time, in honor of that brave girl, the curing water that brings people health is called in the name of the wonderful girl - Matsesta! Indications for treatment: Cardiovascular system diseases (arterial hypertension and hypotension, ischemic heart disease and so on); Osteo-articular diseases (osteochondrosis, poly arthritis and so on); Skin diseases (psoriasis, eczema, neurodermatitis, diathesis and so on); Gynecological diseases (chronic adnexal affection, sterility, adhesive process etc); Blood vessel and nervous diseases (thrombophlebitis, endarteritis, varix dilatation, plexitis, neurosis etc); Central nervous system (CNS) diseases (neuro-circulatory dystonia, post trauma encephalopathy, migraines etc); Post operational and post trauma keloids and hypertrophic scars; Mouth cavity and gums diseases (periodontitis, paradontose, gingivitis, stomatitis etc); Nasal cavity diseases and paranasal sinuses (chronic tonsillitis, maxillitis and sinusitis etc). Treatment procedures: Hydrosulphuric procedures; General hydrosulphuric bath; 4 chamber bath; Local procedures (inhalation, microclyster, head spraying, gynecological spraying, gums spraying, uprising shower); Lodine-bromine baths; Radon baths; Seawater bath; Pine baths; Pine and pearl baths. Phyto baths: Antirheumatic bath; Valeriana; Anti cold bath; Rozmary; Lodine-bromine inhalation, gum spraying with iodine-bromine, gynecological spraying with radon; Paraffin and ozoketirotherapy; Manual massage; Mud bath; Underwater massage shower. In this section you can learn about the main principles of Matsesta health and spa resort treatment, its indications and contraindications. Attention: Matsesta health and spa resort provides strictly individual treatment, only in accordance with your practitioner prescription. Matsesta baths influence blood circulation in general: blood pressure changes, palpitations slow down, breathing intensifies. Hydrosulphuric baths greatly affect nervous processes and reflexes, the structure of central nervous and peripheral nervous systems. Hydro sulphuric baths, affecting body metabolism, are used as a part of complex health resort treatment of osteo-articular diseases, skin diseases, gynecological diseases, neuro endocrine pathology. Many years of scientific and practical research have provided scientific data for the indications to undertake health resort treatment.

NATURE  Greater Caucasus Mountain Range… how do we describe its nature? Quiet, snowy peaks, flowering meadows, twilight in the forest, the cool of mountain rivers… There is no other place on the planet where you can find such a mix of four different climatic zones, crystal clear air, and a variety of mineral springs, and all of it right next to the warm Black Sea. It’s a must see for everyone! ALPINE RESORT  Rosa Khutor is situated in a unique natural-climatic zone. This year-round alpine resort is ready to take on more than 10 500 guests daily. Our mission — to create a comfortable and safe space for recreation, sport and a healthy lifestyle in a unique place in Russia. Rosa Khutor is a prestigious resort that is nonetheless open to all. It is easily accessible via various transport options and offers a wide variety of activities for guests of different ages and families with children. And it of course offers a myriad of opportunities for outdoor entertainment surrounded by the beautiful mountains... It’s sure to be worth it! THE ART OF LIVING  Rosa Khutor is not only fun for sport; it’s also a place where sport blends harmoniously with rest and relaxation. French, Italian, Bavarian or local — which cuisine will you choose after a great time on the slopes or a summer walk? A high-class restaurant at an altitude of 2,320 meters or a bar & grill by the river? Or will you first relax at our spa? Will you indulge in inspired shopping or yoga at the top of the mountain? Or maybe our exciting nightlife? We say try everything! FAMILY  Rosa Khutor is perfect for family holidays. It offers cozy hotels by the side of the river Mzymta, children’s clubs, ski and snowboard instructors and activities. Here your children will be able to try out winter sports for the first time and gain confidence on the slopes in safety and comfort. If you want a change from the slopes, you can enjoy our skating rink. Either way you will come away with special memories to share with your loved ones. FRIENDS  Rosa Khutor’s welcoming ambience make it a great place for holding meetings or making of new friends. Expert skiers and beginners alike will find everything they need to enjoy a wonderful holiday with plenty of time to relax and make fun memories! Rosa Khutor is a popular choice for international companies to hold shows, celebrations and getaways. You are likely to spot celebrities in the friendly atmosphere of our restaurants, hotels and spas. Come share this atmosphere of fun and relaxation! WIDENING THE EUROPE SKI MAP  The European ski map now has one more must-see resort. Located just 40 minutes from an international airport, it offers wonderful pistes with various levels of difficulty, length and vertical drop. The snow here is unique, with the combination of seaside air and clear river water making it extra soft and lush. Rosa Khutor also boasts one of the largest artificial snow systems in Europe. In addition, it offers high-speed gondola lifts, a constantly expanding network of trails and an advanced safety system. Oh, and most importantly, the ski season at Rosa Khutor lasts up to 140 days a year! EXTREME  Rosa Khutor allows you to test your limits. The slopes of Aibga have been a Mecca of freeriding for 40 years. Today, advanced infrastructure has made this unique place accessible to both beginners and experts. Rosa Khutor takes part in major sporting events such as the Freeride World Tour. Experts love Rosa Khutor for its modern safety system, avalanche monitoring, and infrastructure, including a unique «airbag» for landing and The Stash by Burton, only ecological snow park in Russia. PISTES’ MAP  Only three years ago, it would have been hard to imagine the map of Rosa Khutor would look like this. But today, the resort has 77 km of pistes, and the area is constantly expanding thanks to the construction of new infrastructure. In the following years the length of the pistes will be about 100 km. You can find mobile applications with a detailed map of the pistes and other services in the Apple App Store and Google Play.